A test for determining the genotoxicity of a given compound. The Ames test is a biological assay to assess the mutagenic potential of chemical compounds. It serves as a quick assay to estimate the carcinogenic potential of a compound.
A preparation that aids the recipient’s body in destroying or inhibiting the growth and reproduction of viruses.
A core proprietary Filligent technology for filtering biological agents. It attracts, traps and kills targeted infectious organisms, such as the Bird Flu virus.
Any of a large group of one-celled organisms that lack a cell nucleus, reproduce by fission or by forming spores, and in some cases cause disease.
Chemistry that deals with the chemical compounds and processes occurring in organisms.
Biology / Biological
The science of life and of living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution. Of, relating to, caused by, or affecting life or living organisms.
Cancer is a group of diseases in which cells are aggressive (grow and divide without respect to normal limits), invasive (invade and destroy adjacent tissues), and sometimes metastatic (spread to other locations in the body).
A substance or agent that can cause cells to become cancerous by altering their genetic structure so that they multiply continuously and become malignant. Asbestos, DDT, and tobacco smoke are examples of carcinogens.
Each smoker is addicted to a certain level of nicotine. Smokers tend to adjust their smoking behaviour until they achieve their habitual dose of nicotine. This adjustment process (which is largely unconscious) is known as compensation, and is achieved in various ways, such as smoking more cigarettes, or holding the smoke longer in their lungs to better absorb the full nicotine-loading in the smoke. This behaviour exposes the smoker to greater levels of toxicity. This is why "Light" cigarettes are as or more dangerous than "Full Flavoured" cigarettes.
Centers of mass incubation and dissemination of infectious diseases. Crowded places, such as mass transportation (trains, planes, boats and buses), refugee camps and prisons.
Agents of mass dissemination of an infectious disease, such as school-going children or youths. Almost everyone comes into daily contact with one, while they in turn have prolonged and intense contact with each other.
Cell destruction caused by cytotoxic substances. The quality of being toxic to cells. See ‘Toxicity’.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid: The molecule that carries genetic information in all living systems (genetic code). The DNA molecule is formed in the shape of a double helix from a great number of smaller molecules (nucleotides). The workings of the DNA molecule provide the most fundamental explanation of the laws of genetics. DNA acts in three important ways. First, when a cell divides, the DNA uncoils, and each strand creates a new partner from the surrounding material — a process called replication. The two cells that result from the cell division have the same DNA as the original (mitosis). Second, in sexual reproduction, each parent contributes one of the two strands in the DNA of the offspring. Third, inside the cell, the DNA governs the production of proteins and other molecules essential to cell function.
DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. The DNA repair process must be constantly active so it can respond rapidly to any damage in the DNA structure. The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. A cell that has accumulated a large amount of DNA damage, or one that no longer effectively repairs damage incurred to its DNA, can enter one of three possible states:
The DNA repair ability of a cell is vital to the integrity of its genome and thus to its normal functioning and that of the organism.
Undesirable waste products from human consumption, industrial production, agricultural activities, mining, transportation and other sources into the natural environment.
The ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells.
A chemical or other substance that damages DNA, resulting in mutations and/or cancer.
A disease that results from the presence and activity of a pathogenic microbial agent.
Active filtering of damaging constituents whereby constituents are actively sought and disabled.
True or justified belief, as opposed to mere opinion.
Cost of a product that is low enough to be purchased by most people, regardless of income bracket.
Protection provided to the largest possible group of people regardless of race, colour, religion or geographic region.
Size-based filtration, without regard to other characteristics (like sifting sand and pebbles with a sieve). See "Intelligent Filtration."
Characteristic features of the molecular composition of a cell or its surroundings.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus: A variant of the common bacteria Staphylococcus Aureus which has evolved immunity to multiple treatments and is therefore extremely difficult to treat.
Ratio used in assessing the relative toxicity of cigarettes, permitting one to know the "damage caused" per milligram of nicotine inhaled. See also "Compensation."
In cell biology, the nucleus contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes make up the cell's nuclear genome. The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression.
P53 is central to many of the cell's anti-cancer mechanisms. A protein, it acts as a "checkpoint" for cell's undergoing DNA damage. Depending on the degree of damage, it will induce growth suspension, DNA repair, or cell death. p53 has been described as "the guardian of the genome", "the guardian angel gene", or the "master watchman", referring to its role in conserving stability by preventing genome mutation.
A disease which spreads across multiple regions, continents or worldwide.
Any disease-causing agent, usually applied to living agents, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Less commonly, pathogen refers to a non-infectious agent of disease such as a chemical. Personal Pollution Pollutants generated through an individual's actions i.e. cigarette smoke, infectious disease.
In the context of biology, poisons are substances that can cause damage, illness, or death to organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism.
Pollution / Pollutants
ANY contaminants in the air, water, or soil that causes harm to human health or the environment. This can include airborne infectious diseases and tobacco smoke.
The reduction of pollutants through the use of selective strategies and / or technologies.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds that consist of fused aromatic rings. These compounds can be point source pollutants (e.g. oil spill) or non-point source (e.g. atmospheric deposition) and are one of the most widespread organic pollutants. Some of them are known or suspected carcinogens, and are linked to other health problems. They are primarily formed by incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels such as wood, coal, diesel, fat, tobacco, or incense.
The inhalation of infected droplets
Touching infected droplets and then touching one's eyes, nose or mouth, or those of another such as a child's.
Toxicology / Toxicity
In the science of toxicology, toxicity is the degree of impact of an external substance or condition and its deleterious effects on living things: organisms, organ systems, individual organs, tissues, cells (CYTOTOXICITY), and subcellular units, such as genes (GENOTOXICITY). Toxicity is the ability of a chemical or physical agent to induce detrimental temporary or permanent tissue change or to detrimentally interfere with normal biochemical processing.
A toxin is a poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms. When used non-technically, the term "toxin" is often applied to any toxic substances. Toxic substances not of biological origin are more properly termed poisons.
Transmission Drivers / Transmission Factors
There are two sets of variables that affect the rate of transmission in an influenza pandemic: Transmission Factors and Transmission Drivers. Transmission FACTORS are the methods by which the disease spreads from one victim to another. These are through: (i) Primary Transmission (inhaling infected droplets); and Secondary Transmission (touching infected droplets and then touching one's eyes, nose or mouth, or those of another such as a child's Transmission DRIVERS are the methods by which the disease spreads throughout a community and from one community to another. Explosive transmission drivers include: (i) Contact Locations: centers of mass incubation and dissemination --crowded places, such as mass transportation vehicles (trains, planes, boats and buses), refugee camps and prisons; and (ii) Contact Vectors: agents of mass dissemination, such as school-going children or youths. Almost everyone comes into daily contact with one, while they in turn have prolonged and intense contact with each other.
Pronounced "Trap" Technology, this is a core Filligent Intelligent Filtration Technology for filtering chemical pollutants (as opposed to biological agents). It attracts, traps and removes specific chemicals from a given substance.
A preventative preparation which gives the recipient immunity from a disease, usually made of inactivated or weakened virus.
A virus (from the Latin virus meaning toxin or poison) is a sub-microscopic infectious agent that is unable to grow or reproduce outside a host cell. Viruses reproduce first either by injecting their genetic material into the host cell or by fully entering the cell and shedding their protein coat. The genetic material may then be incorporated into the cell's own genome or remain in the cytoplasm. Eventually the viral genes instruct the cell to produce new viruses, which often cause the cell to die upon their exit.